About this Report
In 2019, AMEXCI conducted a pre-study about copper printing aiming at evaluation of copper printing technology trends, maturity of manufacturers and technologies, material properties as well as main challenges regarding the design. Copper printing has mostly been developed for Laser Powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF), with several companies providing both commercially pure copper and low alloyed copper. However, the main challenge of manufacturing pure copper with L-PBF is the low laser absorption of copper with the infrared lasers. Other than L-BPF, companies excelled within Electron Beam Powder Bed Fusion (EB-PBF), Direct Energy Deposition (DED) and Cold Spray have also developed processes for copper printing.